Of the 1728 samples tested, antibodies against one or both of the viruses used were detected in 122 (7.06%) of the tortoises. Detection rates differed depending on virus type, host species, and year of sampling. For individual viruses, detection rates also differed depending on season and country of origin. A better understanding of both the herpesviruses’ prevalences and the immune response to infection will help protect these animals in future. Leer más.


We found that the Italian cave salamander (Speleomantes italicus) mostly consumed flying prey with a hard cuticle, while the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) preferred worm-like and soft-bodied prey. In conclusion, we hypothesize that in our case, the two species of salamanders did not have to change their prey preference in order to avoid competition, but divergences in metabolism and behavioral traits likely worked as natural deterrent. Leer más.


We describe a new species of small-sized (SVL 24.6–28.8 mm) rupicolous Cnemaspis from the Biligirirangan Hills (BR Hills), Karnataka based on morphology and molecular (mitochondrial 16S and ND2) data. The new species is nested within the monticola, mysoriensis and gracilis clades, where it is basal to monticola and gracilis clades in the Maximum Likelihood analysis and is basal to the monticola clade in the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Leer más.


Researchers estimate that more than 1.1 million sea turtles have been illegally killed and, in some cases, trafficked between 1990 and 2020. Even with existing laws prohibiting their capture and use, as many as 44,000 sea turtles were exploited each year over the past decade in 65 countries or territories and in 44 of the world’s 58 major sea turtle populations. Despite the seemingly large number of poached turtles, the study also shows that the reported illegal exploitation of sea turtles declined by approximately 28% over the last decade. Leer más.