The results showed that the type of observation error assumed did not affect the biological parameters. We found evidence for density dependence in both populations. The effect of the change in fish predation on population growth rate and the return point was strong in the population where fish invaded a previously fish-free pond. The effect was weaker in the population where the change was from cyprinid fish to pike. The results showed that fish predation can have strong effects on amphibian population dynamics. The observed population dynamical pattern is phenomenologically similar to alternative stable states. Leer más.