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The relationships between toad behaviour, antipredator defences, and spatial and sexual variation in predation pressure

In this work, I tested these hypotheses on natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita). Specifically, I gauged activity time, exploratory behaviour and boldness in standard laboratory conditions, and assessed whether they correlated with body size and antipredator strategies, namely sprint speed, parotoid gland area and parotoid gland colour contrast.  Leer más.

https://dfzljdn9uc3pi.cloudfront.net/2022/12985/1/fig-1-2x.jpg

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