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Toads phenotypically adjust their chemical defences to anthropogenic habitat change

Despite the well-documented effects of human-induced environmental changes on the morphology, physiology, behaviour and life history of wild animals, next to nothing is known about how anthropogenic habitats influence anti-predatory chemical defence, a crucial fitness component of many species. We investigated the amount and composition of defensive toxins in adult common toads (Bufo bufo) captured in natural, agricultural and urban habitats, and in their offspring raised in a common-garden experiment.  Leer más.

https://media.springernature.com/m685/springer-static/image/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41598-019-39587-3/MediaObjects/41598_2019_39587_Fig1_HTML.png

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