Sky Islands are high-elevation environments that are separated by warmer, low elevations, forming natural patches of unique montane habitat that often persist through changing climates. Peninsular India was ancestrally forested and has gradually become more arid since at least the Oligocene, and open landscapes have dominated since the middle-late Miocene. Mesic forests today are largely restricted to coastal mountains and some other montane habitats. Leer más.


We describe a new species of Lynchius from the eastern montane forest of southern Ecuador. We also report the occurrence of L. parkeri in Ecuador, on paramos of Yacuri National Park, near the border with Peru. We used morphological and genetic evidence for the description of the new species and the new report of L. parkeri. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference on DNA sequences for mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Leer más.


One of the fossil record’s most puzzling features is the absence of preserved eggs or eggshell for the first third of the known 315 million year history of amniote evolution. Our meagre understanding of the origin and evolution of calcareous eggshell and amniotic eggs in general, is largely based on Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous fossils. Leer más.